Annual deaths worldwide in 2012 | What is a low income country?

1. LOWER RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

Kill 1,050,000 people annually / 11.3

2. DIARRHOEAL DISEASES

Kill 760,000 people annually / 8.2%

3. HIV / AIDS

Kill 720,000 people annually / 7.8%

4. ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE

Kill 570,000 people annually / 6.1%

5. Malaria

Kill 480,000 people annually / 5.2%

6. Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease

Kill 450,000 people annually / 4.9%

7. Tuberculosis

Kill 400,000 people annually / 4.3%

8. Prematurity and low birth weight

Kill 300,000 people annually / 3.2%

9. Birth asphyxia and trauma

Kill 270,000 people annually / 2.9%

10. Neonatal Infections

Kill 240,000 people annually / 2.6%

Annual deaths worldwide in 2012 | What is a high income country?

1. Ischaemic Heart Disease

Kill 1,420,000 people annually / 15.6%

2. Stroke

Kill 790,000 people annually / 8.7%

3. Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers

Kill 540,000 people annually / 5.9%

4. Alzheimers and dementia

Kill 370,000 people annually / 4.1%

5. Lower Respiratory Infection

Kill 370,000 people annually / 3.8%

6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Kill 320,000 people annually / 3.5%

7. Colon and Rectum Cancers

Kill 300,000 people annually / 3.3%

8. Diabetes mellitus

Kill 240,000 people annually / 2.6%

9. Hypertensive heart disease

Kill 210,000 people annually / 2.3%

10. Breast cancer

Kill 170,000 people annually / 1.9%

Annual deaths worldwide in 2012

1. Ischaemic Heart Disease

Kill 7,250,000 people annually / 12.8%

2. Stroke

Kill 6,150,000 people annually / 10.8%

3. Lower respiratory infections

Kill 3,460,000 people annually / 6.1%

4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Kill 3,280,000 people annually / 5.8%

5. Diarrhoeal Diseases

Kill 2,460,000 people annually / 4.3%

6. HIV / AIDS

Kill 1,780,000 people annually / 3.1%

7. Trachea, bronchial, lung cancers

Kill 1,390,000 people annually / 2.4%

8. Tuberculosis

Kill 1,340,000 people annually / 2.4%

9. Diabetes mellitus

Kill 1,260,000 people annually / 2.2%

10. Road traffic accidents

Kill 1,261,000 people annually / 2.1%

St. Kitts
Sierra Leone
Zimbabwe
Somalia
Afghanistan
Marshall Islands
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What is a low income country?

A low income country has an annual gross national product (GNP) per capita equivalent to $745 or less in 2003.
(Lower standard of living in these countries; few goods and services; many people cannot meet their basic needs)
Not to be confused with third-world countries.

Lower respiratory infections such as Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis, Pneumonia

Can be bacterial or viral
Most cases of Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis are viral

Symptoms include cough, fever, chest pain, rapid breathing and increased mucus production.
Patients with pneumonia may also show symptoms such as confusion, headache, muscle pain, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

Diarrhoeal diseases

Somalia
179 (per 100k people)
Ghana
175.7 (per 100k people)
Afghanistan
170.6 (per 100k people)
Angola
149.4 (per 100k people)
Chad
147.8 (per 100k people)
Kills around 760,000 children under 5, every year

Annually, there are almost 1.7 billion cases of diarrhoeal disease across the globe

Preventable and treatable
Diarrhoeal diseases can be largely prevented through safe drinking-water and adequate sanitation

HIV / AIDS

Zimbabwe
1,134.9 (per 100k people)
Lesotho
929.6 (per 100k people)
Swaziland
855.9 (per 100k people)
South Africa
555.7 (per 100k people)
Malawi
493.9 (per 100k people)

HIV has killed over 25 million in the past three decades
There were approximately 34 million people living with HIV in 2011
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region, nearly 1 in every 20 adults living with HIV
  • 69% of those infected with HIV are living in this region.
  • There is no cure for HIV
  • Effective treatment with antiretroviral drugs can control the virus
2012 - more than 9.7 million people with HIV in low- and middle-income countries were receiving antiretroviral therapy

ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE


Ischaemic heart disease is the reduced blood supply to the heart.
Most common cause of death in most Western countries
Most cases are caused by atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries from plaque buildup.
Usually felt as angina, chest pain when the heart does not get enough blood.
May feel like tightening or squeezing of the chest
Can lead to heart attacks that, in turn, do damage to the heart

Malaria

is caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through infected mosquitoes
2010 - malaria caused an estimated 660,000 deaths, mostly among African children
Malaria is preventable and curable

Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease


Stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or severely reduced
Brain tissue is deprived of oxygen and food
Strokes can lead to brain damage and death
Major risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking and high cholesterol.

Tuberculosis

Sierra Leone
225.2 (per 100k people)
TImor-Leste
145.9 (per 100k people)
Mali
133.6 (per 100k people)
Togo
126.9 (per 100k people)
Cambodia
125.4 (per 100k people)

2011 - 8.7 million people contracted TB & 1.4 million died from TB
Over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries
TB is a leading killer of people living with HIV
The estimated number of people falling ill with tuberculosis each year is slowly declining.
The TB death rate dropped 41% between 1990 and 2011

Prematurity and low birth weight


Low birth weight contributes to 60% to 80% of all neonatal deaths.
The global prevalence of low birth weight is 15.5%, which amounts to about 20 million
low birth weight infants born each year, 96.5% of them in developing countries.

Birth asphyxia and trauma


Causes of birth asphyxia and trauma were determined in the 208 most severely affected infants of 10,995 consecutive live births; 159 infants had cerebral disturbances, 39 had fractures and palsies, and 10 had fractures or palsies in addition to cerebral disturbances.

Most frequent causes of birth asphyxia and trauma were: prolonged labour, midforceps or breech delivery in full-term infants; abruption placentae, difficult breech delivery, and maternal sedation in premature infants; and unattended precipitate deliveries in immature infants.
Asphyxia following normal labour and delivery usually occurred in infants with fetal malnutrition.

Neonatal Infections


Hand washing, exclusive breastfeeding and safe disposal of medical waste were nominated by most participants as priorities for preventing neonatal infections.
Asphyxia following normal labour and delivery usually occurred in infants with fetal malnutrition.

What is a high income country?

Country having an annual gross national product (GNP) per capita equivalent to $9,206 or greater in 2003.
Most high-income countries have an industrial economy.

ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE

is the reduced blood supply to the heart.
It is the most common cause of death in most Western countries
Most cases are caused by atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries from plaque buildup.
Usually felt as angina, chest pain when the heart does not get enough blood.
May feel like tightening or squeezing of the chest
Can lead to heart attacks that, in turn, do damage to the heart

Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease


Stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or severely reduced
Brain tissue is deprived of oxygen and food
Strokes can lead to brain damage and death
Major risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking and high cholesterol

Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers


In 2008 - Cancer accounted for around 13% of all deaths
Tobacco use is the most important risk factor for cancer
  • 71% of global lung cancer deaths

About 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low and middle-income countries
By 2030, worldwide there will be an estimated 13.1 million deaths from cancer.

Alzheimer's and dementia


Dementia includes deterioration in
  • Memory
  • Thinking
  • Behaviour
  • Ability to perform everyday activities
Worldwide, 35.6 million people have dementia
  • 7.7 million new cases every year.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia
  • May contribute to 60 - 70% of cases

Lower respiratory infections such as Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis, Pneumonia

Can be bacterial or viral
Most cases of Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis are viral

Symptoms include cough, fever, chest pain, rapid breathing and increased mucus production.
Patients with pneumonia may also show symptoms such as confusion, headache, muscle pain, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


2004 - Estimated 64 million people have COPD worldwide
2005 - More than 3 million people died of COPD
5% of all deaths

Almost 90% of COPD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries
The primary cause of COPD is tobacco smoke
COPD is not curable
Total deaths from COPD are estimated to increase by over 30% in the next 10 years

Colon and Rectum Cancers

Of cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer cancer of the colon or rectum is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. In 2009, 51,848 people in the United States died of colorectal cancer (26,806 men and 25,042 women)

Diabetes mellitus


347 million people have diabetes, worldwide
2004 - estimated 3.4 million people died from consequences of high fasting blood sugar
More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries

Hypertensive heart disease

High blood pressure means the pressure inside the blood vessels (called arteries) is too high. As the heart pumps against this pressure, it must work harder. Over time, this causes the heart muscle to thicken.

Without treatment, symptoms of heart failure may develop. Sometimes the muscle can be so thick that it does not get enough oxygen. This can cause angina (chest pain).

High blood pressure also leads to thickening of the blood vessel walls. When combined with cholesterol deposits in the blood vessels, the risk of heart attacks and stroke increases.

Hypertensive heart disease is the leading cause of illness and death from high blood pressure.

Breast cancer deaths

St. Kitts
36.1 (per 100k people)
Antigua/Barbados
29.8 (per 100k people)
Uruguay
29.5 (per 100k people)
Armenia
28 (per 100k people)
Lebanon
28 (per 100k people)

ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE


Ischaemic heart disease is the reduced blood supply to the heart.
Most common cause of death in most Western countries
Most cases are caused by atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries from plaque buildup.
Usually felt as angina, chest pain when the heart does not get enough blood.
May feel like tightening or squeezing of the chest
Can lead to heart attacks that, in turn, do damage to the heart

Stroke

Marshall Island
240.4 (per 100k)
Azerbaijan
206.9 (per 100k)
Kyrgyzstan
198.8 (per 100k)
Russia
195.8 (per 100k)
Malawi
185.8 (per 100k)

Stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or severely reduced
Brain tissue is deprived of oxygen and food
Strokes can lead to brain damage and death
Major risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking and high cholesterol

Lower respiratory infections such as Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis, Pneumonia

Can be bacterial or viral
Most cases of Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis are viral

Symptoms include cough, fever, chest pain, rapid breathing and increased mucus production.
Patients with pneumonia may also show symptoms such as confusion, headache, muscle pain, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


2004 - Estimated 64 million people have COPD worldwide
2005 - More than 3 million people died of COPD
5% of all deaths

Almost 90% of COPD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries
The primary cause of COPD is tobacco smoke
COPD is not curable
Total deaths from COPD are estimated to increase by over 30% in the next 10 years

Diarrhoeal Diseases

Zimbabwe
1,134.9 (per 100k people)
Lesotho
929.6 (per 100k people)
Swaziland
855.9 (per 100k people)
South Africa
555.7 (per 100k people)
Malawi
493.9 (per 100k people)

HIV / AIDS

Zimbabwe
1,134.9 (per 100k people)
Lesotho
929.6 (per 100k people)
Swaziland
855.9 (per 100k people)
South Africa
555.7 (per 100k people)
Malawi
493.9 (per 100k people)

HIV has killed over 25 million in the past three decades
There were approximately 34 million people living with HIV in 2011
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region, nearly 1 in every 20 adults living with HIV
  • 69% of those infected with HIV are living in this region.
  • There is no cure for HIV
  • Effective treatment with antiretroviral drugs can control the virus
2012 - more than 9.7 million people with HIV in low- and middle-income countries were receiving antiretroviral therapy

Trachea, bronchial, lung cancers


In 2008 - Cancer accounted for around 13% of all deaths
Tobacco use is the most important risk factor for cancer
  • 71% of global lung cancer deaths
About 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low and middle-income countries
By 2030, worldwide there will be an estimated 13.1 million deaths from cancer.

Tuberculosis

Sierra Leone
225.2 (per 100k people)
TImor-Leste
145.9 (per 100k people)
Mali
133.6 (per 100k people)
Togo
126.9 (per 100k people)
Cambodia
125.4 (per 100k people)

2011 - 8.7 million people contracted TB | 1.4 million died from TB
Over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries
TB is a leading killer of people living with HIV
Causes one quarter of all deaths
The estimated number of people falling ill with tuberculosis each year is slowly declining.
The TB death rate dropped 41% between 1990 and 2011

Diabetes mellitus


347 million people have diabetes, worldwide
2004 - estimated 3.4 million people died from consequences of high fasting blood sugar
More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries

Road traffic accidents


About 1.24 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes.
Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among young people, aged 15 - 29 years.
91% of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low-income and middle-income countries, even though these countries have approximately half of the world's vehicles.

Half of those dying on the world's roads are "vulnerable road users": pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists.
Without action, road traffic crashes are predicted to result in the deaths of around 1.9 million people annually by 2020.
Only 28 countries, representing 416 million people (7% of the world's population), have adequate laws that address all five risk factors (speed, drink-driving, helmets, seat-belts and child restraints).

St Kitts

36.1 Deaths

from Breast Cancer
Annual deaths per 100,000
Average life expectancy
70
Number of physicians
1.19
Infant mortality
9.43
Children mortality rate*
7
Per 1,000 people | *children under 5

  • 2. Antigua/Barbados - 29.8
  • 3. Uruguay - 29.5
  • 4. Armenia - 28.0
  • 5. Lebanon - 28.0

Sierra Leone

132.5 & 225.2 Deaths

from Malaria & Tuberculosis
Annual deaths per 100,000
Average life expectancy
41.36
Number of physicians
0.3
Infant mortality
76.64
Children mortality rate*
276
Per 1,000 people | *children under 5

  • 2. Chad - 119.3
  • 3. Central Africa - 117.3
  • 4. Guinea-BIssau - 108.7
  • 5. Burkina Faso - 103.4

Zimbabwe

1,134.9 Deaths

from HIV / AIDS
Annual deaths per 100,000
Average life expectancy
37.26
Number of physicians
0.16
Infant mortality
28.23
Children mortality rate*
67
Per 1,000 people | *children under 5

  • 2. Chad - 119.3
  • 3. Central Africa - 117.3
  • 4. Guinea-BIssau - 108.7
  • 5. Burkina Faso - 103.4

Somalia

179 Deaths

from Diarrheal Diseases
Annual deaths per 100,000
Average life expectancy
48
Number of physicians
0.4
Infant mortality
132
Children mortality rate*
224
Per 1,000 people | *children under 5

  • 2. Ghana - 175.7 Deaths
  • 3. Afghanistan - 170.6 Deaths
  • 4. Angola - 149.4 Deaths
  • 5. Chad - 147.8 Deaths

Afghanistan

30.8 Deaths

from Birth Trauma
Annual deaths per 100,000
Average life expectancy
44.67
Number of physicians
0.21
Infant mortality
121.63
Children mortality rate*
101
Per 1,000 people | *children under 5

  • 2. Somalia - 29.8
  • 3. Chad - 28.9
  • 4. Mali - 26.1
  • 5. Burundi - 25.9

Marshall Islands

30.8 Deaths

from Stroke
Annual deaths per 100,000
Average life expectancy
61
Number of physicians
0.47
Infant mortality
22.93
Children mortality rate (under 5)
26

Per 1,000 people | *children under 5
  • 2. Azerbaijan - 206.9
  • 3. Kyrgyzstan - 198.8
  • 4. Russia - 195.8
  • 5. Malawi - 185.8